Fractures (Subscribe)

Categories

Ankle Fractures (29)
Internet resources relating to Ankle Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Ankle Injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S82 Fracture of lower leg, including ankle
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of ankle (disorder) Concept ID: 16114001
Synonyms - Fracture of distal end of tibia and fibula
Ankle fracture
Closed Fractures (0)
Internet resources relating to Closed Fractures. Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Closed"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code T14.2 [0] Fracture of unspecified body region [Closed]
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture, closed (morphologic abnormality) Concept ID: 20946005
Comminuted Fractures (0)
Internet resources relating to Comminuted Fractures
MeSH Search Term " Fractures, Comminuted"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code T14.2 Fracture of unspecified body region
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture, comminuted (morphologic abnormality) Concept ID: 13321001
Elbow Fractures (71)
Internet resources relating to Elbow Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Elbow/injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S42.4 Fracture of lower end of humerus
S52.0 Fracture of upper end of ulna
S52.1 Fracture of upper end of radius
SNOMED-CT Term Elbow fracture (disorder) Concept ID: 309464009
Femur Fractures (165)
Internet resources relating to Fractures of the Femur, Hip and Supracondylar region
MeSH Search Term "Femoral Fractures"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S72 Fracture of femur
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of femur (disorder) Concept ID: 71620000
Synonyms - Fracture of thigh
Fracture of upper leg
Foot Fractures (59)
Internet resources relating to Foot Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Foot Bones/injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S92 Fracture of foot, except ankle
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of foot (disorder) Concept ID: 15574005
Fragility Fractures (6)
Internet resources relating to the prevention and management of Fragility Fractures, especially in the patient with osteoporosis
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Spontaneous"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code M80 Osteoporosis with pathological fracture
SNOMED-CT Term Fragility fracture due to unspecified osteoporosis (disorder) Concept ID: 134400000
Humeral Fractures (83)
Internet resources relating to Humeral Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Humeral Fractures"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S42.2-S42.4
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of humerus (disorder) Concept ID: 66308002
Synonyms - Fracture of upper arm
Knee Fractures (29)
Internet resources relating to Knee Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Knee Injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S80-S89 Injuries to the knee and lower leg
SNOMED-CT Term Injury of knee (disorder) Concept ID: 125601008
Malunion (10)
Internet resources relating to Malunion. Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position.
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Malunited"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code M84.0 Malunion of fracture
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture malunion (disorder) Concept ID: 425852005
Nonunion (11)
Internet resources relating to Nonunion, Non-union, Pseudarthrosis or delayed union of fractures
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Ununited"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code M84.1 Nonunion of fracture [pseudarthrosis]
SNOMED-CT Term Nonunion of fracture (disorder) Concept ID: 302941001
Open Fractures (13)
Internet resources relating to Open Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Open"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code T14.2 [1] Fracture of unspecified body region [open]
SNOMED-CT Term Open fracture of bone (disorder) Concept ID: 439987009
Pathological Fractures (20)
Internet resources relating to Pathologic (Pathological) Fractures. Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not (solely) due to trauma.
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Spontaneous"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code M84.4 Pathological fracture, not elsewhere classified
M90.7 Fracture of bone in neoplastic disease
SNOMED-CT Term Pathological fracture (disorder) Concept ID: 268029009
Synonyms - Spontaneous fracture
Pelvic Fractures (37)
Internet resources relating to Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Pelvis/injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S32.3-S32.5
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of pelvis (disorder) Concept ID: 77493009
Physeal Fractures (7)
Internet resources relating to epiphyseal injuries, fractures entering, crossing or crushing the growth plate.
MeSH Search Term "Epiphyses/injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code T14.2 Fracture of unspecified body region
SNOMED-CT Term Epiphyseal fracture (morphologic abnormality) Concept ID: 135895003
Synonyms - [Q] Fractures involving the epiphyseal plate
Epiphyseal fracture
Epiphyseal fracture (morphologic abnormality)
Fracture of epiphysis
Epiphysial fracture
Radius Fractures (94)
Internet resources relating to Radius Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Radius Fractures"[mesh:noexp]
ICD-10 Code S52 Fracture of forearm
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of radius (disorder) Concept ID: 12676007
Shoulder Fractures (40)
Internet resources relating to Shoulder Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Shoulder Fractures"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S42 Fracture of shoulder and upper arm
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of upper limb (disorder) Concept ID: 23406007
Stress Fractures (16)
Internet resources relating to Stress Fractures
MeSH Search Term "Fractures, Stress"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code M84.3 Stress fracture, not elsewhere classified
SNOMED-CT Term Stress fracture (morphologic abnormality) Concept ID: 23382007
Synonyms - Fatigue fracture
Tibia Fibula Fractures (92)
Internet resources relating to Fractures of the Tibia and Fibula
MeSH Search Term "Tibial Fractures"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S82.1-S82.4
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of tibia (disorder) Concept ID: 31978002
Ulnar Fractures (26)
Internet resources relating to Fractures of the Ulna
MeSH Search Term "Ulna Fractures"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S52 Fracture of forearm
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture of ulna (disorder) Concept ID: 54556006
Wrist Fractures (46)
Internet resources relating to Fractures involving bones of the distal forearm and carpus
MeSH Search Term "Wrist Injuries"[mesh]
ICD-10 Code S62 Fracture at wrist and hand level
SNOMED-CT Term Fracture at wrist and/or hand level (disorder) Concept ID: 208388003

Links

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AO Surgery Reference popular

The AO Surgery Reference is a website describing the whole surgical management process, including decision-making support, approaches, and surgical procedures.

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Closed Reduction and Treatment of Common Fractures popular

Fractures will heal without surgery - sometimes. For the past 50,000 years that hominids have been present, in all but the last 100 years, their fractures healed without surgery. There is no question that we have had many a short legged, crooked armed, gimpy ancestor - but their fractures did heal and so there is an inherent biology in fracture care that has to be respected. Fractures want to heal. We must encourage them to heal in a functional position.

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Comprehensive Classification of Fractures of Long Bones popular

AONA posting of the AO Classification of Long Bone Fractures

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1990 Incidence of fractures in a geographically defined population

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol 44, 241-245 LJ Donaldson, A Cook and RG Thomson 1990
The aim was to describe the population based age and sex specific incidence of fractures at different sites in a large English health district.
The overall estimated annual incidence of fractures was 100 per 10,000 population for males and 81 per 10,000 population for females.

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1996 Bone Mineral Density Changes During Fracture Healing

Bone mineral density changes during fracture healing: a densitometric study in rats P. J. Millett (1), B. Cohen (2), M. J. Allen (3), N. Rushton (2) Research conducted at the Orthopaedic Research Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, UK Summary: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a quantitative technique for determination of bone mineral density (BMD). DXA was used to measure BMD of during fracture healing in rats. Stainless steel or titanium intramedullary nails were inserted into the right femora of male, two month old Sprague-Dawley rats. Closed mid-diaphyseal fractures were then created by three-point bending. Measurements of BMD were made in five regions of the femur in animals killed at 2, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery.Between weeks two and eight, there were significant increases in BMD in all five regions of interest for both treatment groups. There were no statistically significant differences in BMD between treatment groups. There are regional and temporal changes that occur in bones during fracture healing. We believe that that DXA is a useful technique for quantification of bone healing in this small animal model. The technique may have important clinical utility in the prediction of delayed or non-union.

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1998 The Effect of Unreamed, Limited Reamed and Standard Reamed Intramedullary Nailing on Cortical Bone Porosity and New Bone Formation

OTA Abstract 1998
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of unreamed nail insertion and limited or standard canal reaming, prior to insertion of an intramedullary nail, on cortical bone porosity and new bone formation.
Conclusions: The technique of limited reaming may be advantageous for the treatment of tibial fractures with a compromised circulation when stabilization with an intramedullary nail is being considered.

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2000 Fractures Names Images and Mechanisms USUHS

Lecture notes handout on radiology of fractures

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2001 Principles Of Bone Healing

Principles of Bone Healing from Neurosurg Focus 10(4), 2001 Iain H. Kalfas, M.D., F.A.C.S. Department of Neurosurgery, Section of Spinal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio Abstract Our contemporary understanding of bone healing has evolved due to knowledge gleaned from a continuous interaction between basic laboratory investigations and clinical observations following procedures to augment healing of fractures, osseous defects, and unstable joints. The stages of bone healing parallel the early stages of bone development. The bone healing process is greatly influenced by a variety of systemic and local factors. A thorough understanding of the basic science of bone healing as well as the many factors that can affect it is critical to the management of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, the evolving management of spinal disorders can greatly benefit from the advancement of our understanding of the principles of bone healing.

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2002 Fracture Healing

Medscape 2002 Report on fracture healing from OTA meeting

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2004 General Priciples of Fracture Care eMedicine Orthopedics

eMedicine updated 2010
A fracture is defined as a disruption in the integrity of a living bone, involving injury to the bone marrow, periosteum, and adjacent soft tissues. Many types of fractures exist, such as pathologic, stress, and greenstick fractures. When a fracture occurs, it is described radiographically and clinically in terms of the following factors:
* Anatomy:
* Articular surface involvement:
* Displacement:
* Angulation:
* Rotation:
* Shortening:
* Soft-tissue involvement:
Synonyms and related keywords: fracture management, open fracture, closed fracture, broken bone, traumatic bone injury, open reduction and internal fixation, ORIF, external fixation, ankle fracture, femur fracture
Updated Jan 2010

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2006 The frequency and distribution of fractures in children presenting to the emergency service

Objectives: We investigated the frequency and distribution of childhood fractures seen at the emergency service of Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey
Conclusion: In our area, child fractures generally result from falls in summer and spring months and at play hours and are generally treated with conservative methods. Distal radius fractures are the most frequent.
Önder KALENDERER, Tanzer GÜRCÜ, Ali RE‹SO⁄LU, Haluk A⁄Ufi Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2006;40(5):384-387 (full text in Turkish)

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2007 Facial and Mandibular Fractures

The bones of the skull and face collectively make up the most complex area of skeletal real estate in the body. Analysis of the fractured face requires a knowledge of not only normal anatomy, but also of common fracture patterns in the face.

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2007 General Principles of Internal Fixation eMedicine Orthopedics

Fractures have been treated with immobilization, traction, amputation, and internal fixation throughout history. Immobilization by casting, bracing, or splinting a joint above and below the fracture was used for most long bone fractures, with the exception of the femur, for which traction was the mainstay of treatment. In the past, open fractures and ballistic wounds with long bone fractures were not amenable to standard fracture care because of the associated soft tissue injury and the difficulty in preventing sepsis; thus, they usually resulted in amputation, especially during the US Civil War.
Although the concept of internal fixation dates back to the mid 1800s, Lister introduced open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) of patella fractures in the 1860s. Use of plates, screws, and wires was first documented in the 1880s and 1890s. Early surgical fixation initially was complicated by many obstacles, such as infection, poorly conceived implants and techniques, metal allergy, and a limited understanding of the biology and mechanics of fracture healing. During the 1950s, Danis and Muller began to define the principles and techniques of internal fixation. Over the past 40 years, advancements in biological and mechanical science have led to contemporary fixation theories and techniques.
Synonyms and related keywords: broken bone, fracture, open fracture, open reduction and internal fixation, ORIF, bone screws, pretapped screws, self-tapped screws, pull-out strength, plate fixation, Kirschner wires, K-wires, Steinmann pins, dynamic compression plates, DCP, dynamic compression screw, limited-contact dynamic compression plates, LC-DCP, intramedullary nails, IM nails, biodegradable fixation, biodegradable implants
Lakatos & Herbenick 2007 Updated: Nov 6, 2009

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2007 Radiology Cases Simple bone fractures

Subdivided into regional categories -
* Shoulder Girdle
* Elbow and Forearm
* Wrist and Hand
* Pelvis, Proximal femur
* Knee and Leg
* Ankle and Foot
* Chest wall

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2008 Principles of Traction

Video and Discussion of skin traction vs skeletal traction from Department of Orthopaedic Surgery - University Stellenbosch, South Africa

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